Aditya Hrudayam Stotram Meaning Explained


Aditya Hrudayam Cover

Introduction

In our culture it is often found that the forces of nature themselves as deities are worshipped like the wind, the water, the earth, the fire and so on. One among these deities is Surya, the presiding deity of our Sun, also known as Aditya (due to his being the son of Aditi), who is worshipped as the sustainer of life on earth.

Our culture has given prime importance to worship of the Sun through the practice of Sandhyavandana, the ritual to be performed by all Dvijas (wearers of the sacred thread, lit. twice-born) everyday during sunrise, noon and sunset, where our prayers are offered to the Lord Surya through the chanting of the Gayatri Mantra, the sacred hymn to the (brilliance of the) Sun God, revealed in the Rig Veda (Rig Veda 3.62.10).

Another important hymn to the Sun-God is the Aditya Hrudayam, the subject of this article. This is a Stotram, or a sacred hymn, dedicated to Lord Aditya.


The story

During the final between Rama and Ravana in Ramayana. Rama has used all kinds of weapons and missiles against Ravana, but in vain. The overlord of the Rakshasas seems invincible. Rama, currently a normal human being (and not the all-powerful Lord Vishnu), is tormented by fatigue, both mentally and physically. He glances at his enemy, who is ready for battle, and worry crosses his brow.

It is in this gripping scenario that the whole of our hymn is recited.

At this juncture, as the gods look on from the sky, the sage Agastya appears in front of Rama and, with the aim of rejuvenating Rama and hastening the outcome of the battle, teaches this prayer to Lord Surya, and disappears soon afterward. Rama receives the prayer from Agastya, and becomes energized upon reciting it. He lifts his bow and prepares for the final confrontation.

Thus, the poet of the Ramayana, with his impeccable style, ends the chapter where the Aditya Hridayam is contained, to proceed afresh with the deciding battle of the tale.


The Stotram and its structure

The Aditya Hrudayam is so named because, according to the great commentator of the Ramayana, Sri Govindaraja, it is ‘The Prayer that pleases the Heart of Lord Aditya’ – Aditya Manah-Prasadakam Ityarthah.

As mentioned earlier, this is a work of 31 slokas, out of which the first 30 are set in the popular 32-syllabled meter, the Anushtup Chandas. The text has a unique flow, with a distinctive structure, where the slokas are structured as follows:

  • The Introduction to the scenario – verses 1-2
  • The listing of the benefits of recitation of the hymn – verses 3-5
  • The various attributes and activities of Lord Aditya – verses 6-15
  • The Aditya Hrudayam – The core of the whole prayer – verses 16-21
  • The glories of Aditya – verses 22-24
  • The Phalashruti – the benefits of recitation of the prayer – verses 25-27
  • The Conclusion – verses 28-32

What makes this structure unique is the presence of the glories of the deity and the Phalasruti both before as well as after the core portion of the text – a characteristic that is seldom seen in any other hymn.


Benefits of recitation

As pointed out earlier, the Aditya Hrudayam lists out its benefits twice – once before and once after the prayer. Agastya enlightens Rama of the benefits of the Stotram at the outset, by saying, “This Aditya Hrudayam has the potency to vanquish all enemies, bestow victory and bless its chanter with unending auspiciousness, sound health (implying curing of diseases) and eradication of all miseries and sins.” – Shloks 4-5.

After reciting the Hrudayam, Agastya promises Rama, “During times of danger, in places of fear or uncertainty, whoever recites this hymn shall not fall into misery. Upon chanting this hymn thrice unto Lord Aditya with complete devotion, you shall attain victory. You shall defeat Ravana the very next instant, Oh Rama!” – Verses 25-27.

This implies the efficacy of chanting of this hymn and the confidence it instills in the mind of the devotee, something which manifests almost instantaneously in Rama.

The great sage of Kanchi, Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswati (1894-1994), the 68th Pontiff of the Kanchi Kamakoti Mutt, prescribed Aditya Hridayam as a text with great Mantra Shakti. Regular recitation of it is sure to grant sound health, longevity, dispelling of miseries and peace of mind, as indicated by Rishi Agastya in the Phalashruti.


The correct pronunciation by Dr.R. Thiagarajan


Scientific gleamings from the Stotram

From the glories of Surya described in the Stotram, we can understand how our culture worships the Sun as the prime cause of sustenance of life on earth.

We understand how all natural phenomena are ascribed to be an act of Lord Aditya. This is seen in the initial part of the hymn where Agastya identifies Lord Surya with majority of the other devas, with the opposite forces being paired together – such as Yama (Death) and Soma (Rejuvenation), Pitrs (the dead) and Vasus (the forces of nature), Vayu (wind) and Vahni (fire) and so on. The seasons are said to be caused by him, as are cold and heat, day and night, rain and shine, etc.

We also get a hint that the ancients too knew about rotation and revolution of the earth around the Sun, the tilt of the earth’s axis towards and away from the Sun (which causes the change in seasons), the rain cycle and the evolution of a star system (and its eventual dissolution in the same star). A detailed reading of the Stotram by the reader may reveal even more insightful information.


Other glories of Lord Surya

This stotram contains a beautiful praise of Lord Surya, describing him as the cause of the creation, sustenance and eventual dissolution of this earth. Rishi Agastya devotes 13 slokas out of 31 to the praise of Surya (out of which 3 slokas occur after the recitation of the actual hymn).

Lord Surya is primarily described as the Overlord of the World, who nourishes and protects the world through his various duties. He is described as the Glorious One with infinite rays, who is worshipped by all, including the eternal enemies, the devas (gods) and the asuras (the enemies of the gods). He is the embodiment of all divinities (Sarva Devatmakah) such as Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Skanda, the eight guardians of the world, and so on. Such praise of Surya is a reflection of the Vedic maxim:

सूर्य आत्मा जगतस्तस्थुषश्च॥

Transliteration:
“sūrya ātmā jagatastasthuṣaśca॥”

English Translation:
The sun is the soul of all that is dynamic and static (Atharva Veda 13.2.35) 


He is the Lord of the Skies, the creator of the Seasons, who dispels darkness and causes cold and heat one after the other (referring to the change in seasons being due to the shift of the earth towards and away from the Sun). He is the Lord praised by the Rig, Yajuh, and Sama Vedas.

He causes heavy rains and is the friend of the waters (a poetic way of describing the rain cycle), and is the source of all that is in this world. He has the skies as his pathway and he is always on the move (referring to the revolution of the Sun around the Galactic center).

Lord Surya destroys all that is created, and recreates all that is destroyed (a reference to how everything in a star system arises from and dissolves into the same nebula). He provides heat and rains successively and is the form of all activities in this world and their fruits.

A similar praise can be found in the Bhagavata Purana, 12.11.30:

एक एव हि लोकानाम् सूर्य आत्मादिकृद् हरिः।
सर्व वेद क्रिया मूलम् ऋषिभिर्बहुधोदितः॥

Transliteration:
eka eva hi lokānām sūrya ātmādikṛd hariḥ।
sarva veda kriyā mūlam ṛṣibhirbahudhoditaḥ॥

English Translation:
“The Sun God, a manifestation of Lord Hari, is the one Soul of everyone in this world. He is the source of all Vedic activities, and is praised variously by several Rishis (like, here, Rishi Agastya)”. 


Stotram in Sanskrit with translation

Aditya Hrudayam Cover

Sanskrit transcript:
ततो युद्धपरिश्रान्तं समरे चिन्तया स्थितम्।
रावणं चाग्रतो दृष्ट्वा युद्धाय समुपस्थितम्॥ ०१
दैवतैश्च समागम्य द्रष्टुमभ्यागतो रणम्।
उपागम्याब्रवीद्राममगस्त्यो भगवान् ऋषिः॥ ०२

Transliteration:
tato yuddhapariśrāntaṃ samare cintayā sthitam।
rāvaṇaṃ cāgrato dṛṣṭvā yuddhāya samupasthitam॥ 01
daivataiśca samāgamya draṣṭumabhyāgato raṇam।
upāgamyābravīdrāmamagastyo bhagavān ṛṣiḥ॥ 02
English translation:

Beholding Sri Rama, standing absorbed in deep thought on the battle-field, exhausted by the fight and facing Ravana who was duly prepared for the war, the glorious sage Agastya, who had come in the company of gods to witness the encounter (battle) now spoke to Rama as follows:
Hindi translation:

रावन के साथ लड़ाई करते करते जब राम थक जाते है और यूद्ध के सोचने लगते है
तभी रवाब उनके सामने यूद्ध करने के लिए उपस्थित हो जाता है।
यूद्धभूमि की यह स्थिति को देख देवताओ के साथ यूद्ध को देखने आए अगस्त्य ऋषि राम के पास जाते है और उनसे कहते है।


राम राम महाबाहो शृणु गुह्यं सनातनम्।
येन सर्वानरीन् वत्स समरे विजयिष्यसि॥०३

Transliteration:
rāma rāma mahābāho śṛṇu guhyaṃ sanātanam।
yena sarvānarīn vatsa samare vijayiṣyasi॥03
English translation:

‘O Rama’, ‘O Mighty-armed elegant Rama’, listen carefully to the eternal secret by which, ‘O my child’, you shall conquer all your enemies on the battlefield and win against your adversaries.
Hindi translation:

सभी के दिलो में राज करने वाले राम आप मेरे इस सनातन गोपनीय स्तोत्र को सुने और इसका जप करे,
ऐसा करने से आप युद्धभूमि में अपने समस्त शत्रुओ पर विजय पाएंगे।

 


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आदित्यहृदयं पुण्यं सर्वशत्रुविनाशनम्।
जयावहं जपेन्नित्यम् अक्षय्यं परमं शिवम्॥ ०४

Transliteration:
ādityahṛdayaṃ puṇyaṃ sarvaśatruvināśanam।
jayāvahaṃ japennityam akṣayyaṃ paramaṃ śivam॥ 04
English translation:
By Chanting the Aditya-Hrudayam (the meditation of Sun in the heart ) which is very auspicious and highly beneficial, you will be victorious in battle. This holy hymn dedicated to the Sun-God will result in destroying all enemies and bring you victory and permanent happiness.
Hindi translation:

हमारे द्वारा बताई जा रही यह स्तुति भगवान सूर्य को समर्पित है। अगर आप इस स्तुति का जप करते है
तो इस स्तुति के प्रभाव से आपके सभी दुश्मन नष्ट हो जाएँगे और आप इस यूद्ध के निर्णायक बनेंगे और इस निर्णय के साथ सर्वोच्च आनंद कभी नहीं समाप्त होगा ।


सर्वमङ्गलमाङ्गल्यं सर्वपापप्रणाशनम्।
चिन्ताशोकप्रशमनम् आयुर्वर्धनमुत्तमम्॥ ०५

Transliteration:
sarvamaṅgalamāṅgalyaṃ sarvapāpapraṇāśanam।
cintāśokapraśamanam āyurvardhanamuttamam॥ 05
English translation:
This supreme prayer is the best amongst auspicious verses, it will destroy all sins, dispel all doubts, alleviate worry and sorrow, anxiety and anguish, and increase the longevity of life. It is a guarantee of complete prosperity.
Hindi translation:

भगवान सूर्य की यह भजन इनके सर्वोच्च प्रार्थना है। इस प्रार्थना के जाप से मनुष्य को हमेशा खुशी देती है,
इसके साथ ही मनुष्य के सभी पाप, चिंता नष्ट होती और उसे आयु में वृद्धि होती है।


रश्मिमंतं समुद्यन्तं देवासुरनमस्कृतम्।
पूजयस्व विवस्वन्तं भास्करं भुवनेश्वरम्॥ ०६

Transliteration:
raśmimaṃtaṃ samudyantaṃ devāsuranamaskṛtam।
pūjayasva vivasvantaṃ bhāskaraṃ bhuvaneśvaram॥ 06
English translation:
Worship the sun-god, the ruler of the worlds and lord of the universe, who is crowned with effulgent rays, who appears at the horizon and brings light, who is revered by the denizens of heaven (devas) and asuras alike
Hindi translation:

अनंत किरणों से सुशोभित एवं नित्य उदय होने वाले दुनिया के शासक एवं ब्रह्माण्ड के स्वामी भगवान सूर्य की पूजा करे। इनकी पूजा देवताओ एवं असुरो के द्वारा भी किया जाता है।


सर्वदेवात्मको ह्येष तेजस्वी रश्मिभावनः।
एष देवासुरगणाँल्लोकान् पाति गभस्तिभिः॥ ०७

Transliteration:
sarvadevātmako hyeṣa tejasvī raśmibhāvanaḥ।
eṣa devāsuragaṇām̐llokān pāti gabhastibhiḥ॥ 07
English translation:
Indeed, He is the very embodiment of all Gods. He is self-luminous andsustains all with his rays. He nourishes and energizes the inhabitants of all theworlds as well as the host of Gods and demons by his rays
Hindi translation:

भगवान सूर्य ब्रह्माण्ड के सभी देवताओ के स्वरुप हैं, ये तेज़ की राशि है एवं इनकी किरणों से किरणों से पुरे ब्रह्माण्ड को सत्ता एवं स्फूर्ति प्रदान होती ।
भगवान सूर्य स्वः चमत्कार है ये अपने किरण से देवताओ एवं असुरसो की दुनिया को एक साथ बनाए रखते है ।


एष ब्रह्मा च विष्णुश्च शिवः स्कन्दः प्रजापतिः।
महेन्द्रो धनदः कालो यमः सोमो ह्यपां पतिः॥ ०८

Transliteration:
eṣa brahmā ca viṣṇuśca śivaḥ skandaḥ prajāpatiḥ।
mahendro dhanadaḥ kālo yamaḥ somo hyapāṃ patiḥ॥ 08
English translation:
He is Brahma (the creator), Visnu (the Sustainer), Shiva (the destroyer), Skanda (the son of Siva), Prajapati (progenitor of human race), the mighty Indra (king of heaven), Kubera (the god of wealth and lord of riches), Kala (eternal time), Yama (the Lord of death), Soma (the moon god that nourishes), and Varuna (the lord of sea and ocean).
Hindi translation:

भगवान सूर्य ब्रह्मा, विष्णु, शिव, स्कन्द, प्रजापति, महेंद्र, कुबेर, काल, यम, सोम एवं वरुन आदि में भी प्रचलित हैं ।


पितरो वसवः साध्या ह्यश्विनौ मरुतो मनुः।
वायुर्वह्निः प्रजाप्राण ऋतुकर्ता प्रभाकरः॥ ०९

Transliteration:
pitaro vasavaḥ sādhyā hyaśvinau maruto manuḥ।
vāyurvahniḥ prajāprāṇa ṛtukartā prabhākaraḥ॥ 09
English translation:

Indeed, he is Pitris (ancestors, manes), the eight Vasus, the Sadhyas, the twin Aswins (physicians of Gods), the Maruts, the Manu, Vayu (the wind God), Agni
(the fire God), Prana (the Life breath of all beings), the maker of six seasons and the giver of light.
Hindi translation:

भगवान सूर्य पिटर, वासु, साधुआस, अस्विनी देव, मार्ट्स, मनु, वायु, अग्नी, प्राण आदि सभी ऊर्जा और प्रकाश का स्रोत होने के कारण इन्हें
इन सभी सत्रों का निर्माता के रूप में भी जाना जाता है।


आदित्यः सविता सूर्यः खगः पूषा गभस्तिमान्।
सुवर्णसदृशो भानुर्हिरण्यरेता दिवाकरः॥ १०

Transliteration:
ādityaḥ savitā sūryaḥ khagaḥ pūṣā gabhastimān।
suvarṇasadṛśo bhānurhiraṇyaretā divākaraḥ॥ 10
English translation:

He is the Son of Aditi (the mother of creation), the Sun God who transverse the heavens, he is of brilliant golden color, the possessor of myriad rays, by illuminating all directions he is the maker of daylight. He is the all-pervading, shining principle, the dispeller of darkness, exhibiting beautiful sight with the golden hue.
Hindi translation:

भगवान सूर्य अदिती के बेटा है जिन्हें ब्रह्मांड के निर्माता, कार्रवाई के प्रेरक, स्वर्ग के ट्रान्सवर्सर हैं । इन्हें निर्वाहक, सभी
दिशाओं का प्रदीपन, सुनहरे रंग का प्रतिभाशाली और दिन का निर्माता भी कहा जाता है ।


हरिदश्वः सहस्रार्चिः सप्तसप्तिर्मरीचिमान्।
तिमिरोन्मथनः शम्भुस्त्वष्टा मार्ताण्ड अंशुमान्॥ ११

Transliteration:
haridaśvaḥ sahasrārciḥ saptasaptirmarīcimān।
timironmathanaḥ śambhustvaṣṭā mārtāṇḍa aṃśumān॥ 11
English translation:

He has seven horses yoked to his Chariot, shines with brilliant light having infinite rays, is the destroyer of darkness, the giver of happiness and prosperity, mitigator of the sufferings and is the infuser of life. He is the Omnipresent One who pervades all with immeasurable amount of rays.
Hindi translation:

अनगिनत किरणों के साथ व्याप्त भगवान सूर्य सर्वव्यापी है, इन्हें सात इंद्रियों की शक्ति के रूप में जाना जाता है । ये अंधेरे के फैलानेवाले, सुख और समृद्धि का लाभ, दुर्भाग्य को हटाने और जीवन का ज्ञान रखने वाले है ।


हिरण्यगर्भः शिशिरस्तपनो भास्करो रविः।
अग्निगर्भोऽदितेः पुत्रः शङ्खः शिशिरनाशनः॥ १२

Transliteration:
hiraṇyagarbhaḥ śiśirastapano bhāskaro raviḥ।
agnigarbho’diteḥ putraḥ śaṅkhaḥ śiśiranāśanaḥ॥ 12
English translation:

He is Hiranyagarbha born of Aditi of a golden womb, He is Sisirastapana the destroyer of the cold, snow and fog, illuminator, Ravi, bearer of the fire and conch, He is the remover of ignorance and giver of fame.
Hindi translation:

सूर्य एक ज्ञान एवं समृद्धि के स्वर्ण स्रोत है, वह अपने वर्षा से दुनिया को ठंडा करता है, विश्व को गर्मी एवं रोशनी प्रदानकरता है । वह रात में विलीन एवं शांत हो जाता है और अगले सुबह ठंड बर्फ और कोहरे को नष्ट करते हुए हम तह पहुचते है ।


व्योमनाथस्तमोभेदी ऋग्यजुः सामपारगः।
घनवृष्टिरपां मित्रो विन्ध्यवीथीप्लवङ्गमः॥ १३

Transliteration:
vyomanāthastamobhedī ṛgyajuḥ sāmapāragaḥ।
ghanavṛṣṭirapāṃ mitro vindhyavīthīplavaṅgamaḥ॥ 13
English translation:

He is the Lord of the firmament and ruler of the sky, remover of darkness. the master of the three Vedas Rig, Yaju, Sama, he is a friend of the waters (Varuna) and causes abundant rain. He swiftly courses in the direction South of Vindhya-mountains and sports in the Brahma Nadi. 
Hindi translation:

सूर्य अंतरिक्ष के स्वामी, आकाश के शासक, अंधेरे के विद्वान, तीन वेदों रिग, यजुर एवं साम वेद के स्वामी है । भारी वर्षा के कारण भी यही है, या भगवान वरुना के दोस्त हैं । ये विंध्या रेंज को पार कर ब्रह्मा नदी को भी पार कर लिया है ।


आतपी मण्डली मृत्युः पिङ्गलः सर्वतापनः।
कविर्विश्वो महातेजाः रक्तः सर्वभवोद्भवः॥ १४

Transliteration:
ātapī maṇḍalī mṛtyuḥ piṅgalaḥ sarvatāpanaḥ।
kavirviśvo mahātejāḥ raktaḥ sarvabhavodbhavaḥ॥ 14
English translation:

He, whose form is circular and is colored in yellow and red hues, is intensely brilliant and energetic. He is a giver of heat, the cause of all work, of life and death. He is the destroyer of all and is the omniscient one sustaining the universe and all action. 
Hindi translation:

वह, जिसका आकार गोल और रंगीन पीला है, तीव्रता से अवशोषित होता है और मृत्यु को जन्म देती है । वह सभी का विनाशकारी है और वह सर्वज्ञ है जो ब्रह्मांड को बेहद ऊर्जावान बना देता है एवं सभी कार्य को करते है ।


नक्षत्रग्रहताराणामधिपो विश्वभावनः।
तेजसामपि तेजस्वी द्वादशात्मन् नमोऽस्तु ते॥ १५

Transliteration:
nakṣatragrahatārāṇāmadhipo viśvabhāvanaḥ।
tejasāmapi tejasvī dvādaśātman namo’stu te॥ 15
English translation:

He is the lord of the constellations, stars and planets and the origin of everything in the universe. Salutations to Aditya who appears in twelve forms (in the shape of twelve months of the year) and whose glory is described in his twelve names.
Hindi translation:

सूर्य सितारों, ग्रहों और सभी नक्षत्रों के स्वामी है, वह ब्रह्मांड सब कुछ का उत्पत्ति एवं चमकदार लोगों की चमक का कारण है । मई उन्हें नमस्कार करता हूँ जो सूर्य के बारह रूपों में प्रकट होते है ।


नमः पूर्वाय गिरये पश्चिमायाद्रये नमः।
ज्योतिर्गणानां पतये दिनाधिपतये नमः॥ १६

Transliteration:
namaḥ pūrvāya giraye paścimāyādraye namaḥ।
jyotirgaṇānāṃ pataye dinādhipataye namaḥ॥ 16
English translation:

Salutations to the Lord of sunrise and sunset, who rises at the eastern mountains and sets in the western mountains. Salutations to the Lord of the stellar bodies and to the Lord of daylight.
Hindi translation:

पूर्वगिरी उदयाचल तथा पश्चिमगिरी अस्ताचल को मेरा प्रणाम है । ग्रहों एवं तारों के स्वामी तथा दिन के स्वामी आपको मेरा प्रणाम है ।


जयाय जयभद्राय हर्यश्वाय नमो नमः।
नमो नमः सहस्रांशो आदित्याय नमो नमः॥ १७

Transliteration:
jayāya jayabhadrāya haryaśvāya namo namaḥ।
namo namaḥ sahasrāṃśo ādityāya namo namaḥ॥ 17
English translation:

Oh! Lord of thousand rays, son of Aditi, Salutations to you, the bestower of victory, auspiciousness, and prosperity, Salutations to the one who has colored horses to carry him.
Hindi translation:

आप जयस्वरूप एवं विजय और कल्याण के दाता हैं, आपके रथ में हरे रंग के घोड़े को भी मेरा नमस्कार है । सहस्रों किरणों से सुशोभित भगवान् सूर्य आपको मेरा बारम्बार प्रणाम है । आप अदिति के पुत्र होने के कारण आदित्य नाम से भी प्रसिद्द हैं, आपको नमस्कार है ।

 

नम उग्राय वीराय सारङ्गाय नमो नमः।
नमः पद्मप्रबोधाय मार्ताण्डाय नमो नमः॥ १८

Transliteration:
nama ugrāya vīrāya sāraṅgāya namo namaḥ।
namaḥ padmaprabodhāya mārtāṇḍāya namo namaḥ॥ 18
English translation:

Salutations to Martandaya the son of Mrukanda Maharishi, the terrible and fierce one, the mighty hero, the one that travels fast. Salutations to the one whose appearance makes the lotus blossom (also the awakener of the lotus in the heart).
Hindi translation:

उग्र, वीर एवं सारंग सूर्यदेव को मेरा नमस्कार है । कमलों को विकसित करने वाले प्रचंड तेजधारी मार्तण्ड को भी मेरा प्रणाम है ।


ब्रह्मेशानाच्युतेशाय सूर्यायादित्यवर्चसे।
भास्वते सर्वभक्षाय रौद्राय वपुषे नमः॥ १९

Transliteration:
brahmeśānācyuteśāya sūryāyādityavarcase।
bhāsvate sarvabhakṣāya raudrāya vapuṣe namaḥ॥ 19
English translation:

Salutations to the Lord of Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu, salutations to Surya the sun god, who (by his power and effulgence) is both the illuminator and devourer of all and is of a form that is fierce like Rudra.
Hindi translation:

आप भगवान ब्रह्मा, शिव और विष्णु के भी स्वामी है । सूर आपकी संज्ञा है, यह सूर्यमंडल आपका ही तेज है, आप प्रकाश से परिपूर्ण हैं, सबको स्वाहा कर देने वाली अग्नि आपका ही स्वरुप है, आप रौद्ररूप धारण करने वाले आपको मेरा नमस्कार है ।


तमोघ्नाय हिमघ्नाय शत्रुघ्नायामितात्मने।
कृतघ्नघ्नाय देवाय ज्योतिषां पतये नमः॥ २०

Transliteration:
tamoghnāya himaghnāya śatrughnāyāmitātmane।
kṛtaghnaghnāya devāya jyotiṣāṃ pataye namaḥ॥ 20
English translation:

Salutations to the dispeller of darkness, the destroyer of cold, fog and snow, the exterminator of foes; the one whose extent is immeasurable. Salutations also to the annihilator of the ungrateful and to the Lord of all the stellar bodies, who is the first amongst all the lights of the Universe.
Hindi translation:

हे प्रभु आप अज्ञान और अन्धकार के नाशक है, आप जड़ता एवं शीत के निवारक तथा शत्रु का नाश करने वाले हैं । आपका स्वरुप अप्रमेय है । आप कृतघ्नों का नाश करने वाले, संपूर्ण ज्योतियों के स्वामी और देवस्वरूप हैं, आपको मेरा प्रणाम है ।


तप्तचामीकराभाय वह्नये विश्वकर्मणे।
नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे॥ २१

Transliteration:
taptacāmīkarābhāya vahnaye viśvakarmaṇe।
namastamo’bhinighnāya rucaye lokasākṣiṇe॥ 21
English translation:

Salutations to the Lord shining like molten gold, destroying darkness, who is the transcendental fire of supreme knowledge, who destroys the darkness of ignorance, and who is the cosmic witness of all merits and demerits of the denizens who inhabit the universe. Salutations to Vishvakarma the architect of the universe, the cause of all activity and creation in the world.
Hindi translation:

प्रभु आप प्रभा तपाये हुए सुवर्ण के समान है, आप हरी, आप विश्वकर्मा हैं, तम के नाशक, प्रकाशस्वरूप एवं जगत के साक्षी हैं, आपको मेंरा प्रणाम है।


नाशयत्येष वै भूतं तदेव सृजति प्रभुः।
पायत्येष तपत्येष वर्षत्येष गभस्तिभिः॥ २२

Transliteration:
nāśayatyeṣa vai bhūtaṃ tadeva sṛjati prabhuḥ।
pāyatyeṣa tapatyeṣa varṣatyeṣa gabhastibhiḥ॥ 22
English translation:

Salutations to the Lord who creates heat by his brilliant rays. He alone creates, sustains and destroys all that has come into being. Salutations to him who by his rays consumes the waters, heats them up and sends them down as rain again.
Hindi translation:

हे रघुनन्दन! ये भगवान् सूर्य ही संपूर्ण भूतों का संहार, सृष्टि और पालन करते हैं।
ये अपनी किरणों से गर्मी पहुंचाते और वर्षा भी करते हैं ।


एष सुप्तेषु जागर्ति भूतेषु परिनिष्ठितः।
एष एवाग्निहोत्रं च फलं चैवाग्निहोत्रिणाम्॥ २३

Transliteration:
eṣa supteṣu jāgarti bhūteṣu pariniṣṭhitaḥ।
eṣa evāgnihotraṃ ca phalaṃ caivāgnihotriṇām॥ 23
English translation:

Salutations to the Lord who abides in the heart of all beings keeping awake when they are asleep. Verily he is the Agnihotra, the sacrificial fire and the fruit gained by the worshipper of the Agnihotra.
Hindi translation:

ये सब भूतों में अन्तर्यामी रूप से स्थित होकर उनके सो जाने पर भी जागते रहते हैं । ये ही अग्निहोत्र तथा अग्निहोत्री पुरुषों को मिलने वाले फल हैं ।


वेदाश्च क्रतवश्चैव क्रतूनां फलमेव च।
यानि कृत्यानि लोकेषु सर्व एष रविः प्रभुः॥ २४

Transliteration:
vedāśca kratavaścaiva kratūnāṃ phalameva ca।
yāni kṛtyāni lokeṣu sarva eṣa raviḥ prabhuḥ॥ 24
English translation:

The Sun God (Ravi) is the origin and protector of the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva), the sacrifices mentioned in them and the fruits obtained by performing the sacrifices. He is the Lord of all action in this universe and decides the Universal path.
Hindi translation:

सूर्य ही इस ब्रह्मांड में सभी कार्यों का भगवान है । देवता, यज्ञ और यज्ञों के फल भी ये ही हैं । संपूर्ण लोकों में जितनी क्रियाएँ होती हैं उन सबका फल देने में ये ही पूर्ण समर्थ हैं ।


एनमापत्सु कृच्छ्रेषु कान्तारेषु भयेषु च।
कीर्तयन् पुरुषः कश्चिन्नावसीदति राघव॥ २५

Transliteration:
enamāpatsu kṛcchreṣu kāntāreṣu bhayeṣu ca।
kīrtayan puruṣaḥ kaścinnāvasīdati rāghava॥ 25
English translation:

Listen, Oh Rama! Oh Raghava, scion of the Raghu dynasty, any person, singing the glories of Surya in great difficulties, during affliction, while lost in the wilderness, and when beset with fear, will not come to grief (or lose heart).
Hindi translation:

विपत्ति में, कष्ट में, दुर्गम मार्ग में तथा और किसी भय के अवसर पर जो कोई पुरुष इन सूर्यदेव का कीर्तन करता है, उसे दुःख नहीं भोगना पड़ता।


पूजयस्वैनमेकाग्रे देवदेवं जगत्पतिम्।
एतत् त्रिगुणितं जप्त्वा युद्धेषु विजयिष्यसि॥ २६

Transliteration:
pūjayasvainamekāgre devadevaṃ jagatpatim।
etat triguṇitaṃ japtvā yuddheṣu vijayiṣyasi॥ 26
English translation:

If you worship this lord of the universe, the God of all Gods, with concentrated mind and devotion by reciting this hymn (Aditya-Hridayam) thrice, you will emerge victorious in the battle.
Hindi translation:

हे राघव ! अगर आप पूरी भक्ति भाव एवं ईमानदार से इस स्तोत्र का भजन तीन बार करते है तो आप इस यूद्ध में अवश्य जित जाएँगे।


अस्मिन् क्षणे महाबाहो रावणं त्वं वधिष्यसि।
एवमुक्त्वा तदाऽगस्त्यो जगाम च यथागतम्॥ २७

Transliteration:
asmin kṣaṇe mahābāho rāvaṇaṃ tvaṃ vadhiṣyasi।
evamuktvā tadā’gastyo jagāma ca yathāgatam॥ 27
English translation:

O mighty-armed one, you shall triumph over Ravana this very moment. After blessing Lord Rama thus, and predicting that He would slay (the demon) Ravana, sage Agastya took leave and returned to his original place.
Hindi translation:

महाबाहो ! और तुम इसी समय रावण को यूद्ध में वध कर सकोगे। यह कहकर अगस्त्य ऋषि वापस चले गए।


एतच्छ्रुत्वा महातेजा नष्टशोकोऽभवत्तदा।
धारयामास सुप्रीतो राघवः प्रयतात्मवान्॥ २८

Transliteration:
etacchrutvā mahātejā naṣṭaśoko’bhavattadā।
dhārayāmāsa suprīto rāghavaḥ prayatātmavān॥ 28
English translation:
Having heard this, that great warrior Raghava, feeling greatly delighted, became free from grief. His clouds of worry thus dispelled, the lustrous Lord Rama obeyed the sayings of sage Agastya with great happiness. With composed mind, he retained this hymn in his memory, ready to chant the Aditya-Hridayam.
Hindi translation:

ऋषि के इन सभी बातो को सुन कर राम खुश हुए और बहादुर एवं ऊर्जावान बन गए।


आदित्यं प्रेक्ष्य जप्त्वा तु परं हर्षमवाप्तवान्।
त्रिराचम्य शुचिर्भूत्वा धनुरादाय वीर्यवान्॥ २९

Transliteration:
ādityaṃ prekṣya japtvā tu paraṃ harṣamavāptavān।
trirācamya śucirbhūtvā dhanurādāya vīryavān॥ 29
English translation:
Having performed Achamanam (sipping water thrice) and being purified, Rama gazing at the sun with devotion, recited the hymn Aditya-Hridayam thrice, then that great hero Raghava was thrilled and lifted his bow.
Hindi translation:

भक्ति के साथ राम ने सूरज को देखा एवं तीन बार इस भजन का आनंद लिया । भजन के समाप्त होने पर राम ने अपने धनुष को उठाया और रावन से यूद्ध करने के लिए तैयार हो ग​ए।


रावणं प्रेक्ष्य हृष्टात्मा युद्धाय समुपागमत्।
सर्वयत्नेन महता वधे तस्य धृतोऽभवत्॥ ३०

Transliteration:
rāvaṇaṃ prekṣya hṛṣṭātmā yuddhāya samupāgamat।
sarvayatnena mahatā vadhe tasya dhṛto’bhavat॥ 30
English translation:
Lord Rama thus cheered, seeing Ravana coming to fight, put forth all his effort with a determination to kill him (Ravana).
Hindi translation:

रावण को नष्ट करने के दृढ़ संकल्प के साथ रावण को लड़ाई के लिए चुनौती दी ।


अथ रविरवदन्निरीक्ष्य रामं मुदितमनाः परमं प्रहृष्यमाणः।
निशिचरपतिसंक्षयं विदित्वा सुरगणमध्यगतो वचस्त्वरेति॥ ३१

Transliteration:
atha raviravadannirīkṣya rāmaṃ muditamanāḥ paramaṃ prahṛṣyamāṇaḥ।
niśicarapatisaṃkṣayaṃ viditvā suragaṇamadhyagato vacastvareti॥ 31
English translation:
Then knowing that the destruction of Ravana was near, the Sun-God Aditya, surrounded by all the Gods in heaven, looked at Rama with delighted mind and exclaimed ‘Hurry up’ – ‘Be quick’.
Hindi translation:

उस समय देवताओं के मध्य में खड़े हुए भगवान् सूर्य ने प्रसन्न होकर श्रीरामचन्द्रजी की और देखा और निशाचरराज रावण के विनाश का समय निकट जानकर हर्षपूर्वक कहा – ‘रघुनन्दन ! अब जल्दी करो’ ।


Valmiki proves his excellence as a poet when he concludes the chapter thus:

“Upon hearing this prayer, Rama became free of miseries. He looked at the sun, with happiness, and chanting the hymn thrice, lifted his bow. He looked at Ravana, and valorously advanced to battle, knowing full well that Ravana’s death was inevitable.

Then, Lord Surya, positioned in the middle of the group of gods in the sky, looked delightedly at Rama. And knowing that Ravana’s death was at hand, he uttered, ‘Hurry up!’”.

Thus Valmiki concludes the chapter, in such a way that the prayer is complete by itself (due to the predetermined outcome of the battle being confirmed in the conclusion), and yet the reader has the pleasure and thrill of reading the sequence of the climactic battle afresh in the next chapter.



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